These nongame, carnivorous birds occur at all elevations. Nests are built on cliff faces and are utilized from February 1st through August 31st. A one mile radius buffer zone needs to be protected from human disturbance in excess of historical activities. Eggs incubate for 29-32 days, after which the young fledge in 35-42 days. Their population trend is increasing. The Arctic (P.a tundrius) and American (P.a. anatum) subspecies inhabit southeastern Utah. The former subspecies is a winter resident while the latter remains yearlong.